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André Gide (1869–1951)

Autor(a) de The Immoralist

260+ Works 14,850 Membros 184 Críticas 43 Favorited

About the Author

Gide, the reflective rebel against bourgeois morality and one of the most important and controversial figures in modern European literature, published his first book anonymously at the age of 18. Gide was born in Paris, the only child of a law professor and a strict Calvinist mother. As a young mostrar mais man, he was an ardent member of the symbolist group, but the style of his later work is more in the tradition of classicism. Much of his work is autobiographical, and the story of his youth and early adult years and the discovery of his own sexual tendencies is related in Si le grain ne meurt (If it die . . .) (1926). Corydon (1923) deals with the question of homosexuality openly. Gide's reflections on life and literature are contained in his Journals (1954), which span the years 1889--1949. He was a founder of the influential Nouvelle Revue Francaise, in which the works of many prominent modern European authors appeared, and he remained a director until 1941. He resigned when the journal passed into the hands of the collaborationists. Gide's sympathies with communism prompted him to travel to Russia, where he found the realities of Soviet life less attractive than he had imagined. His accounts of his disillusionment were published as Return from the U.S.S.R. (1937) and Afterthoughts from the U.S.S.R. (1938). Always preoccupied with freedom, a champion of the oppressed and a skeptic, he remained an incredibly youthful spirit. Gide himself classified his fiction into three categories: satirical tales with elements of farce like Les Caves du Vatican (Lafcadio's Adventures) (1914), which he termed soties; ironic stories narrated in the first person like The Immoralist (1902) and Strait Is the Gate (1909), which he called recits; and a more complex narrative related from a multifaceted point of view, which he called a roman (novel). The only example of the last category that he published was The Counterfeiters (1926). Throughout his career, Gide maintained an extensive correspondence with such noted figures as Valery, Claudel, Rilke, and others. In 1947, he received the Nobel Prize for Literature. (Bowker Author Biography) mostrar menos


Obras por André Gide

The Immoralist (1902) 3,318 exemplares
The Counterfeiters (1925) 1,384 exemplares
The Vatican Cellars (1914) 1,369 exemplares
Strait is the Gate (1924) 1,360 exemplares
The Pastoral Symphony (1919) 1,061 exemplares
The Counterfeiters / Journal of The Counterfeiters (1925) — Autor — 858 exemplares
If It Die (1920) — Autor — 513 exemplares
Fruits of the Earth (1897) — Autor — 460 exemplares
Corydon (1920) — Autor — 344 exemplares
Two Symphonies (1911) — Autor — 295 exemplares
Marshlands (1895) — Autor — 209 exemplares
Journals: 1889-1949 (1956) 175 exemplares
Isabelle (1911) — Autor — 163 exemplares
Travels in the Congo (1927) — Autor — 153 exemplares
Dostoevsky (1923) — Autor — 124 exemplares
Madeleine (1947) — Autor — 111 exemplares
Two Legends: Oedipus and Theseus (1931) — Autor — 107 exemplares
L'école des femmes (1929) — Autor — 105 exemplares
The journals of André Gide. Vol 1/2 : 1889-1924 (1948) — Autor — 101 exemplares
Oscar Wilde: A Biography (1910) — Autor — 96 exemplares
Theseus (1946) — Autor — 93 exemplares
Urien's voyage (1893) — Autor — 85 exemplares
The School for Wives (1929) — Autor — 73 exemplares
Amyntas: North African Journals (1906) — Autor — 71 exemplares
The journals of André Gide. Vol 4/4 : 1939-1949 (1954) — Autor — 62 exemplares
Le Prométhée mal enchaîné (1899) — Autor — 59 exemplares
Retour de l'U.R.S.S (1936) — Autor — 57 exemplares
Gide. Anthologie de la poésie française (La Pléiade) (1949) — Editor; Prefácio, algumas edições56 exemplares
Journal of the Counterfeiters (1927) — Autor — 53 exemplares
Voyage au Congo (1927) — Autor — 52 exemplares
The Return of the Prodigal Son (1907) — Autor — 51 exemplares
Notes on Chopin (1931) — Autor — 51 exemplares
Strait is the Gate / The Vatican Cellars (1909) — Autor — 48 exemplares
O pensamento vivo de Montaigne (1929) — Autor — 48 exemplares
Journal 1889-1939 (1939) — Autor — 47 exemplares
The Trial (1948) — Autor — 45 exemplares
Imaginary Interviews (1941) — Autor — 45 exemplares
Pretexts; reflections on literature and morality (1903) — Autor — 44 exemplares
Notebooks of Andre Walter (1891) — Autor — 42 exemplares
Autumn Leaves (1949) — Autor — 41 exemplares
So be it; or, The chips are down (1946) — Autor — 38 exemplares
Souvenirs de la cour d'assises (1914) — Autor — 37 exemplares
The Correspondence Between Paul Claudel and Andre Gide (1948) — Autor — 32 exemplares
The White Notebook (1964) 32 exemplares
Retour de l'URSS. Retouches à mon "Retour de l'URSS" (1936) — Autor — 27 exemplares
Marshlands and Prometheus Misbound (1953) — Autor — 27 exemplares
Diario (1999) 25 exemplares
Le Ramier (1907) — Autor — 22 exemplares
The confined woman of Poitiers (1930) 17 exemplares
Saül : Drame en cinq actes (1903) — Autor — 17 exemplares
The Andre Gide reader (1971) 17 exemplares
La sequestree de poitiers / l'affaire redureau (1930) — Autor — 17 exemplares
Gide : Oedipe - Cocteau : La machine infernale (1968) — Autor — 15 exemplares
Les nouvelles nourritures (1936) — Autor — 15 exemplares
Gide. Souvenirs et voyages (La Pléiade) (2001) — Autor — 14 exemplares
Judge not (1914) — Autor — 13 exemplares
Journal, 1939-1942 (1942) — Autor — 13 exemplares
Il caso Redureau (1930) — Autor — 13 exemplares
Sämtliche Erzählungen (1965) 11 exemplares
André Gide, Paul Valéry. Correspondance, 1890-1942 (1955) — Autor — 11 exemplares
Théâtre (1901) 10 exemplares
LA GUIRLANDE DES ANNES (1941) — Autor — 10 exemplares
Retouches à mon Retour de l'U.R.S.S (1937) — Autor — 9 exemplares
De l'influence en littérature (1900) — Autor — 8 exemplares
Incidences (1924) — Autor — 8 exemplares
Gide : Essais critiques (1999) — Autor — 7 exemplares
Oedipe (1930) — Autor — 7 exemplares
Robert (1930) — Autor — 7 exemplares
Journal, 1942-1949 (1950) — Autor — 6 exemplares
Romanzi 6 exemplares
Geneviève (1936) — Autor — 5 exemplares
My theater. Five plays and an essay (1934) — Autor — 5 exemplares
Le grincheux (2001) 5 exemplares
Diario 1887-1910 (2021) 4 exemplares
Pages de journal (1929-1932) (1934) — Autor — 4 exemplares
Pages choisies (1954) — Autor — 4 exemplares
Caro maestro, caro Simenon (1977) 4 exemplares
Kitsas uks ; Valerahategijad ; Theseus (1909) — Autor — 4 exemplares
Opere 3 exemplares
Romane und lyrische Prosa (1973) 3 exemplares
Paludi-I nutrimenti terrestri (1895) — Autor — 3 exemplares
Poussin (2010) 3 exemplares
Gertrude 3 exemplares
Diario 1911-1915 (2021) — Autor — 2 exemplares
André Gide, Léon Blum. Correspondance, 1890-1950 (2008) — Autor — 2 exemplares
El Hadj (1897) — Autor — 2 exemplares
Günlük (1997) 2 exemplares
Fatti di Cronaca (1994) 2 exemplares
Deux interviews imaginaires suivis de feuillets (1947) — Autor — 2 exemplares
André Gide, Christian Beck. Correspondance (1994) — Autor — 2 exemplares
Erzählungen 2 exemplares
PAGES DE JOURNAL 1939 - 1941 (1944) 2 exemplares
Découvrons Henri Michaux (1941) — Autor — 2 exemplares
Gide André 2 exemplares
Coffret Gide Journal 2v (2022) 2 exemplares
Numquid et tu? 2 exemplares
Diario 1936-1950 (2022) 2 exemplares
Incontri e pretesti 2 exemplares
Le roi Candaule (1901) — Autor — 2 exemplares
Perséphone (1949) — Autor — 2 exemplares
Diario 1926-1935 (2022) 2 exemplares
Le Treizième Arbre (1935) — Autor — 1 exemplar
Le Traité du Narcisse (1892) 1 exemplar
Storia di Pierrette (2010) 1 exemplar
Prem Aur Prakash 1 exemplar
Se il grano non muore: 1 (2017) 1 exemplar
Obras Escogidas 1 exemplar
Diarios 1911-1925 1 exemplar
LES DEMI-DIEUX: Poussin (1945) 1 exemplar
Dziennik (1992) 1 exemplar
Tagebcher — Autor — 1 exemplar
Recits, Roman, Soties (1948) 1 exemplar
The Counterfeiters [extracts] (1925) — Autor — 1 exemplar
Correspondance avec sa mère, 1880-1895 (1988) — Autor — 1 exemplar
La Comtesse (1999) 1 exemplar
Dindiki. 1 exemplar
Attendu que 1 exemplar
Self portraits 1 exemplar
Bathseba ; dramatisches Gedicht in drei Monologen (1908) — Autor — 1 exemplar
De nieuwe spijzen 1 exemplar
Trozos Escogidos (1921) 1 exemplar
MORCEAUX CHOISIS. (1921) 1 exemplar
Hyrden 1 exemplar
Povodi i odjeci (1926) 1 exemplar
Pântanos 1 exemplar
Poesie 1 exemplar
Rencontres 1 exemplar
Philoctète et Thésée (1898) — Autor — 1 exemplar

Associated Works

The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824) — Posfácio, algumas edições2,386 exemplares
Night Flight (1930) — Prefácio, algumas edições1,985 exemplares
Barabbas (1944) — Letter, algumas edições1,398 exemplares
Gitanjali (1910) — Tradutor, algumas edições1,287 exemplares
Typhoon (1902) — Tradutor, algumas edições817 exemplares
The Assassin's Cloak: An Anthology of the World's Greatest Diarists (2000) — Contribuidor, algumas edições548 exemplares
Essays, Part 1/3 (1580) — Prefácio, algumas edições529 exemplares
French Stories (1960) — Contribuidor — 490 exemplares
The Queen of Spades (1834) — Tradutor, algumas edições474 exemplares
The God That Failed (1944) — Contribuidor — 426 exemplares
A World of Great Stories (1947) 258 exemplares
The Penguin Book of International Gay Writing (1995) — Contribuidor — 177 exemplares
The Columbia Anthology of Gay Literature (1998) — Contribuidor — 158 exemplares
Eleven Modern Short Novels (1970) — Contribuidor — 49 exemplares
The Shot (1831) — Tradutor, algumas edições36 exemplares
rororo Monographien, Nr.4, Antoine de Saint-Exupery (1956) — Contribuidor, algumas edições35 exemplares
Edouard Vuillard, 1868-1940 (1971) — Contribuidor — 35 exemplares
The Snowstorm (1983) — Tradutor, algumas edições35 exemplares
The Vintage Book of Classic Crime (1993) — Contribuidor — 33 exemplares
The Penguin Book of Twentieth-Century Protest (1998) — Contribuidor — 31 exemplares
Der Postmeister (1955) — Tradutor, algumas edições28 exemplares
Ten Modern Short Novels (1958) — Contribuidor — 26 exemplares
Oscar Wilde: A Collection of Critical Essays (1969) — Contribuidor — 26 exemplares
Great Short Novels of the World (1927) — Contribuidor — 15 exemplares
Shakespeare : Oeuvres complètes, tome 2 : Roméo et Juliette (1959) — Tradutor, algumas edições; Avant-propos, algumas edições15 exemplares
Les Pages immortelles : De Montaigne, choisies et expliquées par André Gide (1949) — Préface et anthologie — 11 exemplares
Les Faux Monnayeurs - d'André Gide (Profil D'Une Oeuvre) (1970) — Contribuidor — 7 exemplares
Das Simenon-Lesebuch (2002) — Contribuidor — 6 exemplares
André Gide's The Immoralist: A Play — Autor — 5 exemplares
American Aphrodite (Volume Three, Number Twelve) (1953) — Contribuidor — 4 exemplares
Pléiade: Goethe: Théâtre complet (1942) — Prefácio, algumas edições3 exemplares
Nouvelles — Tradutor, algumas edições2 exemplares
Théâtre complet. Avant-propos d'André Gide (1938) — Prefácio, algumas edições; Tradutor, algumas edições1 exemplar
フランス短篇24 (現代の世界文学) (1989) — Contribuidor — 1 exemplar


1001 (113) 1001 books (102) a ler (911) André Gide (96) antologia (183) Arte e cultura clássicas (193) Autobiografia (123) Aviação (98) Biografia (149) clássico (143) Comunismo (70) contos (143) Diário (187) ensaios (126) Escócia (86) Ficção (2,211) ficção francesa (143) Filosofia (171) Francês (963) França (408) Gide (91) Gótico (79) história (88) Homossexualidade (77) journal (102) lido (127) Literatura (848) Literatura francesa (1,101) Memórias (110) narrativa (68) Não ficção (177) Poesia (263) por ler (117) Prémio Nobel (167) Religião (160) Romance (685) romano (314) Século XIX (139) Século XX (403) Tradução (159)

Conhecimento Comum



This is a difficult story to appreciate today, removed from its original context. Alissa and Jerome love each other, and Alissa's sister Juliette also loves Jerome. Oh, and they're first cousins who grew up around each other. Alissa tries to give Jerome up to her sister, but Juliette matches the sacrifice by immediately marrying some random guy who appeared on the scene in order to remove herself from the picture.

Alissa though continues and takes to a far extreme her self-sacrifice. She has the idea that human love is vastly inferior to love of God and that it indeed gets in the way.
"What can the soul prefer to happiness?" I cried, impetuously. She whispered: "Holiness..."
She tells Jerome:
"In the first moments of your stay at Fongueusemare it was astonishment that I felt - soon after it was uneasiness - at the strange contentment that filled my whole being in your presence; 'a contentment so great,' you said, 'that I desire nothing beyond!' Alas! that is just what makes me uneasy... 'If it did not suffice, it would not be happiness,' you said, do you remember? And I did not know what to answer. No, Jerome, it does not suffice us. Jerome, it must not suffice us. I cannot take this delicious contentment for the true one... We were born for a happiness other than that..."
In the name of this love of God, she continually pushes Jerome away, renouncing human love and happiness. Having renounced earthly pleasure, she naturally wastes away and dies, though only about in her late twenties. Jerome is given her diary after her death, in which she writes that she loves him so much that she has failed to love God more. Despairing, she resolved to help Jerome reach that height of religious virtue that she was unable to reach herself by making it so he could not love her any longer.
Alas! I understand now only too well: between God and him there is no other obstacle but myself. If perhaps, as he says, his love for me at first inclined him to God, now that very love hinders him; he lingers with me, prefers me, and I am become the idol that keeps him back from making further progress in virtue. One of us two must needs attain to it; and as I despair of overcoming the love in my coward heart, grant me, my God, vouchsafe me strength to teach him to love me no longer, so that at the cost of my merits I may bring Thee his, which are so infinitely preferable... Was he not born for something better than to love me?
The cost of her unasked for sacrifice is soon her death, and the last line she writes is, "I should like to die now, quickly, before again realising that I am alone." As a final twist of the knife, Gide has Jerome visit Juliette ten years after Alissa's death, Juliette with 5 children now, and he tells her that he will not love another woman for the rest of his life. She asks him,
"Then you think that one can keep a hopeless love in one's heart for so long as that? And that life can breathe upon it every day, without extinguishing it?"
She puts her hands to her face and begins to cry, and we cannot doubt it is her own love for Jerome of which she was speaking. Lord a'mighty.

Though today we idealize and elevate romantic love, and the deists among us seemingly naturally place God's blessing upon it, this was not always the case. Among the turn of the twentieth century Protestants in northern France, apparently, romantic love and love of God were sometimes seen as rivals, or at least in tension with each other. Gide wrote this novel as a cautionary tale, to explore the taking of this attitude to the extreme. It is a twin tale to his novel The Immoralist, where Michel pursues the opposite extreme of earthly pleasure, also to disaster.

It was also a shot at his wife's tendencies, with whom the homosexual Gide had an unconsummated relationship. His wife who was also his cousin. While The Immoralist, in which a married homosexual man is attracted to Arab boys, is a shot at his own.
… (mais)
lelandleslie | 22 outras críticas | Feb 24, 2024 |
A museum piece. Not one of those that draws the crowds, either; more of a worthy but kind of dull, really, Velazquez.

A companion to Gide's [b:Strait is the Gate|469406|Strait is the Gate (La Porte Etroite)|André Gide|https://d.gr-assets.com/books/1347378560s/469406.jpg|702632], in which he explores the dangers of over-religiosity, in The Immoralist he explores the dangers of rejecting the conventional moral life and trying to live for immediate aesthetic and sensual pleasures. Well, kind of. The life Michel leads here is still fairly conventional, even edging on moral, despite his lofty rhetoric otherwise. He just doesn't do much to impress the reader that he's in fact living out his stated aims and rejecting convention.

Which gets to what this story is perhaps really about: repressed homosexuality. I have to take issue with the book description where it states the book is "a frank defense of homosexuality". It is nothing of the kind. In regards to Michel's homosexuality, it is the opposite of frank. It is subtle enough that it apparently went almost totally unnoticed at the time of its publication. Furthermore it is not a defense; Michel is a mostly unsympathetic character, he treats his devoted (painfully so) wife rather appallingly, and as Gide writes in his preface to a later edition of the work, "If I had intended my hero as an example, it must be granted I did anything but succeed." Indeed, I can't imagine anyone thinking at the end of this story, "Man, that Michel, what a great guy."

It may be said this book is an illustration of the torments and harm that can come about through the individual repressing such an elementary, necessary part of him or herself. A repression that can be blamed on society's restrictive conception of what is proper and moral, to be sure. Even when the individual tries to live in a way more true to himself, it may still prove difficult.

The Immoralist may then be more a condemnation of narrow-minded society that produces tormented men like Michel, than of Michel's transgressive actions, or a defense of such a man produced by such a society.

Which all may make the book sound like an entertaining read, but I assure you, the ideas behind the book are more interesting than the book's execution.
… (mais)
lelandleslie | 45 outras críticas | Feb 24, 2024 |
AnkaraLibrary | Feb 23, 2024 |
A 9 month river and overland trek up one river in the Congo (border of Cameroon and what is now the Central African Republic of the Congo) to Lake Chad and down another to the Cameroon-Nigerian border on the Atlantic in 1924-1925. Part film documentary, part hunting trip, part biological collecting, part investigative work commissioned by the French government AG sucked it up and did what white men used to do back in the day. Went on an extended safari. Describes the weather (heat and tornados) the landscape (rivers, canyons, lakes, mountains), sicknesses, foods, and some of the characters and situations they meet. Would not have been printed today for the condescending attitudes towards the natives but was probably enlightened for its time. AG made numerous complaints about companies and mistreatment of the natives. Not alot of fear of large animals though for sure a fear of fever, tse tses, and malaria.… (mais)
JBreedlove | 1 outra crítica | Dec 3, 2023 |



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Dorothy Bussy Translator, Author
Robert Mallet Editor, Introduction, Préface, Notes
Marc Allégret Author, Photographer
Colette Author
Jacques Schiffrin Editor, Author
Léon Blum Author
Ruth Goetz Playwright
Augustus Goetz Playwright
Louise O. Fresco Introduction
Oscar Wilde Contributor
Franz Kafka Contributor
Daniël de Lange Translator
Jeff Last Translator
William S. Bell Introduction and Notes
Michel Rodde Illustrator
Kjell Strömberg Introduction
Marc Beigbeder Contributor
Antonio Frasconi Cover designer
Richard Howard Translator
Justin O'Brien Translator, Editor
David Watson Translator
Theo Kurpershoek Cover designer
H. Marsman Translator
Edward Gorey Cover artist
Ivo Hristov Translator
A.H. Nijhoff Translator
Harry Visser Translator
Carmen Castro Translator
Pierre Masson Editor, Author
Jef Last Translator
Eric Plooy Translator
Arnold Bennett Introduction
Martine Sagaert Editor, Contributor
John Russell Translator
Andrew Brown Translator
Percival Pollard Translator
David H. Walker Contributor, Postface
Wade Baskin Translator
Brian Aldiss Translator
Martti Anhava Translator
Malcolm Cowley Translator
Leon Katz Translator
Gertrud Müller Translator
Maurice Nadeau Introduction
John Florio Translator
F.J. de Jong Translator
Catherine Gide Avant-propos
Eric Marty Editor
Françoise Lioure Editor, Introduction
Samuel Putnam Translator
Jean Tipy Editor
Stuart Barr Collaboration
Pierre Lachasse Editor, Introduction
Jean d'Ormesson Présentation
Henri Thomas Preface
Claire Denis Collaboration à l'édition
Alain Goulet Contributor
André Schiffrin Avant-propos
June Guicharnaud Translator
Kevin O'Neill Collaboration
Claude Sicard Introduction
Daniel Durosay Contributor
Jean Delay Editor, Introduction
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