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In September 1842, Nathaniel Hawthorne noted this social encounter in his journal: "Mr. Thorow dined with us yesterday. He is a singular character---a young man with much of wild original nature still remaining in him; and so far as he is sophisticated, it is in a way and method of his own. He is as ugly as sin, long-nosed, queer-mouthed, and with uncouth and somewhat rustic, although courteous manners, corresponding very well with such an exterior. But his ugliness is of an honest and agreeable fashion, and becomes him much better than beauty. On the whole, I find him a healthy and wholesome man to know." Most responses to Thoreau are as ambiguously respectful as was Hawthorne's. Thoreau was neither an easy person to like nor an easy writer to read. Thoreau described himself as a mystic, a Transcendentalist, and a natural philosopher. He is a writer of essays about nature---not of facts about it but of his ideals and emotions in its presence. His wish to understand nature led him to Walden Pond, where he lived from 1845 to 1847 in a cabin that he built. Though he was an educated man with a Harvard degree, fluent in ancient and modern German, he preferred to study nature by living "a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust." Knowing this, we should beware of misreading the book that best reflected this great experience in Thoreau's life: Walden; or, Life in the Woods (1854). It is not a handbook of the simple life. Though there are elements in the book of a "whole-earth catalogue" mentality, to focus on the radical "economic" aspects of Thoreau's work is to miss much in the book. Nor is it an autobiography. The right way to read Walden is as a "transcendental" narrative prose poem, whose hero is a man named Henry, a modern Odysseus in search of a "true America." Thoreau left Walden Pond on September 6, 1846, exactly two years, two months, and two days after he had settled there. As he explained in the pages of Walden: "I left the woods for as good a reason as I went to live there. Perhaps it seemed to me that I had several more lives to live, and could not spare any more time for that one." Growth, change, and development were essential to his character. One should not overlook the significance of his selecting July 4 as the day for taking possession of his residence at Walden Pond, a day that celebrates the establishment of a new government whose highest ideal is individual freedom. In terms of Thoreau's redefinition of the nation-idea, "the only true America" is that place where one may grow wild according to one's nature, where one may "enjoy the land, but own it not." Thoreau believed that each person should live according to individual conscience, willing to oppose the majority if necessary. An early proponent of nonviolent resistance, he was jailed briefly for refusing to pay his poll tax to support the Mexican War and the slave system that had promoted that war. His essay "On Civil Disobedience" (1849), which came from this period of passive resistance, was acknowledged by Mahatma Gandhi (who read it in a South African jail) as the basis for his campaign to free India. Martin Luther King, Jr. later attributed to Thoreau and Gandhi the inspiration for his leadership in the civil rights movement in the United States. Thoreau contracted tuberculosis in 1835 and suffered from it sporadically afterwards. His health declined over three years with brief periods of remission, until he eventually became bedridden. Recognizing the terminal nature of his disease, Thoreau spent his last years revising and editing his unpublished works, particularly The Maine Woods and Excursions, and petitioning publishers to print revised editions of A Week and Walden. He died on May 6, 1862 at age 44. (Bowker Author Biography) — biography from Walden… (mais)
Walden 13,150 exemplares, 169 críticas
Walden / Civil Disobedience 7,107 exemplares, 48 críticas
Civil Disobedience and Other Essays 1,667 exemplares, 11 críticas
Civil Disobedience 1,489 exemplares, 29 críticas
Walden and Other Writings 1,398 exemplares, 9 críticas
Walking 839 exemplares, 19 críticas
The Portable Thoreau 809 exemplares, 4 críticas
Cape Cod 742 exemplares, 11 críticas
Walden and other writings 731 exemplares, 5 críticas
The Maine Woods 723 exemplares, 5 críticas
A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers 610 exemplares, 9 críticas
Walden: A Fully Annotated Edition 586 exemplares, 7 críticas
Thoreau: On Man and Nature 392 exemplares, 1 crítica
Collected Essays and Poems 334 exemplares, 2 críticas
Walden and Other Writings 313 exemplares, 5 críticas
Where I Lived, and What I Lived For 305 exemplares, 1 crítica
The Journal, 1837–1861 273 exemplares, 5 críticas
Reflections at Walden 135 exemplares
Letters to a Spiritual Seeker 133 exemplares, 3 críticas
Excursions 124 exemplares, 2 críticas
Henry David's House 123 exemplares, 2 críticas
Civil Disobedience / Reading (Autor) 94 exemplares
Works of Henry David Thoreau 93 exemplares, 1 crítica
The Works of Henry David Thoreau 66 exemplares, 1 crítica
Wild Apples 59 exemplares, 1 crítica
Thoreau on Birds 55 exemplares
Autumnal Tints 53 exemplares
Men of Concord 48 exemplares
Friendship and Other Essays 43 exemplares, 1 crítica
The Works of Henry David Thoreau 40 exemplares, 1 crítica
Canoeing in the Wilderness 39 exemplares, 2 críticas
The Illuminated Walden 38 exemplares, 1 crítica
A Yankee in Canada 33 exemplares, 1 crítica
The Quotable Thoreau 31 exemplares
Thoreau's Wildflowers 30 exemplares, 1 crítica
Thoreau's animals 30 exemplares, 2 críticas
Collected Poems of Henry Thoreau 29 exemplares, 1 crítica
The River 24 exemplares
Un paseo invernal 19 exemplares, 1 crítica
Summer 15 exemplares
Ktaadn 15 exemplares
Friendship 11 exemplares
A Year in the Woods 10 exemplares
Musketaquid 8 exemplares
Journal, Volume 3 7 exemplares
Volar : apuntes sobre aves 6 exemplares, 1 crítica
A Winter Walk 6 exemplares
Lob der Wildnis 5 exemplares
Journal, Volume 5 5 exemplares
Voisins animaux 4 exemplares
Through the Year with Thoreau 4 exemplares, 1 crítica
Journal, Volume 6 4 exemplares
El gran invierno 3 exemplares
Pensées sauvages 3 exemplares
Poems of Nature 3 exemplares, 1 crítica
Thoreau on writing 3 exemplares
American Fields and Forests 3 exemplares, 1 crítica
Sir Walter Raleigh 3 exemplares
Nature and Walking 3 exemplares
Sivil Itaatsizlik 2 exemplares
Vida salvaje, La 2 exemplares
Histoire de moi-même 2 exemplares, 1 crítica
Til naturen 2 exemplares
Toulky přírodou 2 exemplares
Journal 1844-1846 2 exemplares
Essais 2 exemplares, 1 crítica
Poemas 2 exemplares
Marcher : & Une promenade en hiver 2 exemplares, 1 crítica
Pensoj el Valdeno 2 exemplares
Night and Moonlight 2 exemplares
The service 2 exemplares
Journal, 1837-1852 2 exemplares
La No-violencia, arma política 2 exemplares, 1 crítica
Mosbindja Civile 1 exemplar, 1 crítica
Nature Walking 1 exemplar
Woodshed 1 exemplar
The New Walden 1 exemplar
“Sic Vita” 1 exemplar
Opere scelte 1 exemplar
Spring 1 exemplar
Yaban Elmasi 1 exemplar
Primavera 1 exemplar
The Angle of Dazzle 1 exemplar, 1 crítica
The Landlord 1 exemplar
Passejades 1 exemplar
Huckleberries 1 exemplar
Sem título 1 exemplar
Cape Cod, vol. 1 1 exemplar
Cape Cod, vol. 2 1 exemplar
Walden, Volume 2 1 exemplar
The moon 1 exemplar
Thoreau's Journals (Autor) 1 exemplar
Desobeir 1 exemplar
Yürümek 1 exemplar
Coratge cívic 1 exemplar
Kring Bellman 1 exemplar
On Land 1 exemplar
On Water 1 exemplar
An Ideal 1 exemplar
The Writings VI 1 exemplar
Tagebuch III 1 exemplar
The Art of the Personal Essay (Contribuidor) 1,290 exemplares, 8 críticas
Essays: English and American (Contribuidor) 571 exemplares, 1 crítica
The Assassin's Cloak: An Anthology of the World's Greatest Diarists (Contribuidor, algumas edições) 523 exemplares, 8 críticas
The Rag and Bone Shop of the Heart: A Poetry Anthology (Contribuidor) 367 exemplares, 3 críticas
Writing New York: A Literary Anthology (Contribuidor) 263 exemplares, 4 críticas
The Heath Anthology of American Literature, Volume 1 (Contribuidor, algumas edições) 246 exemplares
Social and Political Philosophy: Readings From Plato to Gandhi (Contribuidor) 233 exemplares, 1 crítica
The Literary Cat (Contribuidor) 229 exemplares
The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse (Contribuidor) 221 exemplares, 2 críticas
American Religious Poems: An Anthology (Contribuidor) 152 exemplares, 1 crítica
A Comprehensive Anthology of American Poetry (Contribuidor) 125 exemplares, 2 críticas
The Anarchist Reader (Autor, algumas edições) 118 exemplares
Winter: A Spiritual Biography of the Season (Contribuidor) 104 exemplares, 2 críticas
The Anarchists (Contribuidor) 104 exemplares
The Standard Book of British and American Verse (Contribuidor) 103 exemplares, 1 crítica
American Sonnets: An Anthology (Contribuidor) 63 exemplares
The Heath Anthology of American Literature, Concise Edition (Contribuidor) 62 exemplares, 1 crítica
Selected Writings of the American Transcendentalists (Contribuidor) 59 exemplares, 1 crítica
Autumn: A Spiritual Biography of the Season (Contribuidor) 56 exemplares, 2 críticas
Civil Disobedience: Theory and Practice (Contribuidor) 55 exemplares
Range of Philosophy (Contribuidor) 47 exemplares
The Book of the Sea (Contribuidor) 36 exemplares
The Signet Book of American Essays (Contribuidor) 34 exemplares
American Literature: The Makers and the Making (In Two Volumes) (Contribuidor, algumas edições) 25 exemplares
The Seas of God: Great Stories of the Human Spirit (Contribuidor) 24 exemplares, 2 críticas
Classic Essays in English (Contribuidor) 22 exemplares
The Penguin book of the ocean (Contribuidor) 19 exemplares
Trees: A Celebration (Contribuidor) 13 exemplares
Favorite Animal Stories (Contribuidor) 11 exemplares
Christmas Classics: Stories for the Whole Family (Contribuidor) 11 exemplares, 1 crítica
Suspense: A Treasury for Young Adults (Contribuidor) 6 exemplares
America's Great Wilderness (Contribuidor) 5 exemplares
A Reader for Writers (Contribuidor) 2 exemplares
The Analog Sea Review: Number Four (Contribuidor) 1 exemplar

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Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, and philosopher. A leading transcendentalist, he is best known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay "Civil Disobedience" (originally published as "Resistance to Civil Government"), an argument for disobedience to an unjust state.

Thoreau's books, articles, essays, journals, and poetry amount to more than 20 volumes. Among his lasting contributions are his writings on natural history and philosophy, in which he anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, two sources of modern-day environmentalism. His literary style interweaves close observation of nature, personal experience, pointed rhetoric, symbolic meanings, and historical lore, while displaying a poetic sensibility, philosophical austerity, and attention to practical detail. He was also deeply interested in the idea of survival in the face of hostile elements, historical change, and natural decay; at the same time he advocated abandoning waste and illusion in order to discover life's true essential needs.

He was a lifelong abolitionist, delivering lectures that attacked the Fugitive Slave Law while praising the writings of Wendell Phillips and defending the abolitionist John Brown. Thoreau's philosophy of civil disobedience later influenced the political thoughts and actions of such notable figures as Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King Jr.

Thoreau is sometimes referred to as an anarchist. Though "Civil Disobedience" seems to call for improving rather than abolishing government—"I ask for, not at once no government, but at once a better government"—the direction of this improvement contrarily points toward anarchism: "'That government is best which governs not at all;' and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have."
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