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This one (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/guides/guide-display/-/2V5M5V4GUSAQ7/ref%3Dcm_bg_guides/104-0750676-6019143) is pretty informative, but I'm not really sure of how mainstream they all are.
I can definitely recommend Summer in Baden-Baden by Tsypkin though; it's not widely known, but it's a great and intense book.
Vassily Aksyonov's The Burn - a scathing attack on a Soviet Union in the 1970s in which the people have lost both their idealism and their fear
Lydia Chukovskaya's Sofia Petrovna - written in secret in 1940, a simple tale about a mother who loves both her son and her country, but struggles to reconcile why the two should come into conflict
Sergei Dovlatov's The Invisible Book - a funny and quirky (and very short) journey through censorship in the Russian literary scene in the 1960s and 1970s
Yuri Buida's The Zero Train - a post-Soviet Union allegory about the bewilderment of a country which went from socialist idealism to Stalinism in the blink of an eye
The burn is a seriously involved and, at times, difficult read, but it is possibly my Russian number one, Dostoevsky aside, although Erofeev, mentioned above by Jargoneer runs it close.
-- anything at all you can get your hands on by Leonid Dobychin, such as The Town of N and Encounters with Lise and other stories
-- anything by Daniil Kharms, a lately rediscovered absurdist writer, e.g., Incidences
-- Fyodor Sologub's The Petty Demon -- I think Sologub is classed as a Symbolist.
-- Kangaroo by Yuz Aleshkovsky is a wild one, but (and this of course is just my opinion) I think the voice is a bit too derivative for repeated reading
I don't really know what's available in bookstores in the US (I am in the UK, and in Cornwall - rural UK - at that) but these authors would be extremely unlikely to show up on our bookshop shelves.
Ivan Bunin the Nobelist and short story writer,
Vassily Grossman for Life and Fate, a modern War and Peace set during WWII,
Leskov and Kuprin for short stories,
Oblomov by Goncharov
Joseph Brodsky another Nobelist for essays and poetry,
and the many other great modern russian poets: Blok,
Some lighter stuff by emigres like Gary Shteyngart's Absurdistan, and The russian debutante's handbook,
There are Jews in my House by Lara Vapnyar ,
and the sad and heroic memoirs of Mandelstam's wife Nadezhda mandelstam Hope against hope and Hope Abandoned.
Maxim Osipov is one of the finest writers of short fiction in Russia today. He is regularly hailed as "the new Chekhov" - grappling with distinctly Russian issues but with universal resonance. His short story "Moscow - Petrozavodsk" won the Yuri Kazakov prize for short fiction in 2010 (I think it was 2010). The translation is due to be published today at The White Review, although it's not yet live as I write this. If you feel like a read, you can find The White Review here: http://www.thewhitereview.org/
The second writer is Alexei Nikitin, very different to Osipov. His novel Istemi will be published in English translation in January. The current blurb on Amazon isn't quite right, but I think it will probably be changed. It's a novel about young lives ruined in the twilight years of the Soviet Union - a short novel, but with astounding scope.
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