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Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto…
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Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death (original 1941; edição 1968)

por Soren Kierkegaard (Autor), Walter Lowrie (Tradutor)

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1,042314,440 (4.03)7
Walter Lowrie's classic, bestselling translation of Søren Kierkegaard's most important and popular books remains unmatched for its readability and literary quality. Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death established Kierkegaard as the father of existentialism and have come to define his contribution to philosophy. Lowrie's translation, first published in 1941 and later revised, was the first in English, and it has introduced hundreds of thousands of readers to Kierkegaard's thought. Kierkegaard counted Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death among "the most perfect books I have written," and in them he introduces two terms--"the absurd" and "despair"--that have become key terms in modern thought. Fear and Trembling takes up the story of Abraham and Isaac to explore a faith that transcends the ethical, persists in the face of the absurd, and meets its reward in the return of all that the faithful one is willing to sacrifice, while The Sickness Unto Death examines the spiritual anxiety of despair. Walter Lowrie's magnificent translation of these seminal works continues to provide an ideal introduction to Kierkegaard. And, as Gordon Marino argues in a new introduction, these books are as relevant as ever in today's age of anxiety.… (mais)
Membro:DavidMay1901
Título:Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death
Autores:Soren Kierkegaard (Autor)
Outros autores:Walter Lowrie (Tradutor)
Informação:Princeton University Press (1968), Edition: 1st, 278 pages
Colecções:A sua biblioteca
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Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death por Søren Kierkegaard (1941)

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Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) is recognized as an existentialist philosopher and "Christian" theologian. This work attempts the impossible--resolving the tension between those two bricks.

In Fear and Trembling (1843) he introduces the "crucial idea" of absurdity. Begins with a panegyric on God's call for Abraham to sacrifice Isaac. Genesis ch.22.

Imagine with K, rising early in the morning to prepare a three day journey to Mount Moriah, where sacrifices are made. K stories slightly different versions, and includes the weaning mother in the murderous demonstration of a monstrous faith.

This work is a violent assault on the efforts of 19th century German theologians to link their Faith to the relentless scientific reality which reduces religion to an irrelevancy. Here, the author presents an extended and layered homily on the Biblical story of Abraham's near-sacrifice of Isaac.

In Sickness Unto Death (1849), Kierkegaard analyses "despair" as a disease. This sickness is despair. It is dialectical. Despair for K's Christians is the "greatest spiritual wretchedness", an expression of death. The cure for it is simply to die.

In the author's Preface he seems to apologize a "strange" work that may seem too scientific to be evangelical, and too evangelical to be strictly scientific.

From the Christian point of view, "everything should serve for edification". And it should be "anxiously concerned" and that concern is the relationship to life. [142] The aloofness and pretended indifference to life, is meaningless, and vanity, perhaps at best a jest. [143] Science without concern for life--for the edification of the spirit--is meaningless.

Despair as sickness of Spirit assumes three forms: Despair at not being conscious of having itself; Despair at not Willing to Be; and Despair at Willing to Be Oneself.

Despair is a universal; physicians might say there is not one single person who is in perfect health, one might also say all despair--where some inner parts "dwell in a disquietude, a perturbation, a discord, an anxious dread of an unknown something, or of a something he does not even dare to make acquaintance with, dread of a possibility of life, or dread of himself, so that, after all,...a dread which is inexplicable, gives evidence of its presence within." [154] K asks if this view "seems a paradox, an exaggeration, and a gloomy and depressing view". He insists it is not. This is merely to throw light on what is ordinarily left in obscurity. [155] ( )
  keylawk | Aug 17, 2019 |
Kierkegaard is the godfather of Existentialism. He relentlessly disposed of the elegant self-contained world of Hegel's thesis→antithesis→synthesis and asserted that philosophy can only be done in fragments. Furthermore, because you can never stand outside any self-contained system of philosophy and view it as a whole, you need to throw yourself into it—commit yourself. In Christian terms, have faith.

This emphasis on commitment comes through in all of his writing. Take The Sickness Unto Death, for example. Kierkegaard spends a few pages dismantling the Socratic understanding of sin as ignorance. One big problem with this view is that:

"It lacks a dialectical determinant for the transition from having understood something to the doing of it" (224).

If sin is ignorance, you can understand (the opposite of ignorance) the Socratic view of sin without doing anything about it. The true Christian view of sin, on the other hand, moves us past this inactivity:

"The whole of Christianity hinges upon this, that it must be believed, not comprehended" (229).

And, of course, believing means committing. It's this sort of commitment that forms the interpretive centre of Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death.

*** Fear and Trembling (1843) ***

The story of Abraham and Isaac is one of the most emotionally devastating passages in all of scripture. In Genesis 22, God told Abraham to take his promised Son, Isaac, and sacrifice him on Mount Moriah, a three day's journey from home. Much ink has been spilled on this story, as James Goodman's book, But Where is the Lamb attests. Yet no one has entered into the paradoxical nature of the story as deeply as Kierkegaard.

Kierkegaard begins by imagining what that event must have been like. What went through Abraham's mind on that three day journey to Mount Moriah? How did Isaac's faith handle the ordeal? Kierkegaard imagines Abraham violently accosting Isaac saying, "Stupid boy, dost thou then suppose that I am thy father? I am an idolater. Dost thou suppose that this is God's bidding? No, it is my desire" (27). Perhaps this, Kierkegaard reasons, may have rescued Isaac's faith.

One of the challenges of reading Fear and Trembling is understanding Kierkegaard's voice. He writes as Johannes de Silentio, a pseudonymous person who has passed through the aesthetic stage of life—that stage in which sensory experiences are the most important and has entered the ethical stage. In the ethical stage, the person acknowledges that there is a universal principle which at times overrules aesthetics. De Silentio has not, however, reached the religious stage which is only attained through faith. This makes the book that much more intriguing because the voice of de Silentio cannot comprehend Abraham's action—this is something only a believer can grasp.

The believer embraces the paradox of Abraham's choice. He believed two contradictory (from the ethical point of view) things:

1. God gave him Isaac to fulfill his promise of future descendants.
2. God asked him to sacrifice Isaac.

Abraham believed God "by virtue of the absurd." He had faith despite the paradox:

"What a tremendous paradox faith is, a paradox which is capable of transforming a murder into a holy act well-pleasing to God, a paradox which gives Isaac back to Abraham, which no thought can master, because faith begins precisely there where thinking leaves off" (64).

Kierkegaard doesn't mean that faith is irrational. De Silentio has not made the existential leap which would allow him to grasp that act.

The story of Abraham and Isaac is difficult material to meditate on. It's far easier to skip ahead to a gentler story. If you're ready for your faith to be challenged by the weight of this story, Kierkegaard's de Silentio is the best guide you'll find.

*** The Sickness Unto Death (1849) ***

"'This sickness is not unto death' (John 11:4), and yet Lazarus died" (144).

With these words Kierkegaard launches into an immensely insightful exploration of sin and human psychology. The book is divided into two parts:

1. That despair is the sickness unto death
2. Despair is sin

Kierkegaard's study of despair is precise. He demonstrates how pervasive despair is and how it exhibits itself in various ways. On one side you have the despair of not willing to be oneself. On the alternate side there is defiant despair—the despair of being willing to be oneself. And despair is sin.

Here's how Kierkegaard describes sin:

"Sin is this: before God, or with the conception of God, to be in despair at not willing to be oneself, or in despair at willing to be oneself. Thus sin is potentiated weakness or potentiated defiance: sin is the potentiation of despair" (208).

Kierkegaard's understanding of sin is wise. More than mere acts, sin is a state that a person is in. For as often as a person remains in that state, sin accrues to his or her account. Thus, despairing over your sin only adds to it. Despairing of forgiveness of sin—that which Christ offers— adds to sin. In the end, despairing of Christianity altogether is the ultimate sin which is "sin against the Holy Ghost" (255).

Reading Kierkegaard can be a challenge. It takes work to understand what he means by various words and to follow the subtlety of his logic. Kierkegaard, writing as Johannes de Silentio, suggested that there would come a day when people wouldn't take the time to understand this sort of writing:

"He can easily foresee his fate ... in an age when an author who wants to have readers must take care to write in such a way that the book can easily be perused during the afternoon nap" (24).

Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death demand more than a casual read, but the rewards are proportionately great. ( )
  StephenBarkley | Nov 23, 2015 |
Two wonderful books from the beginnings of existensialism
  mikefitch | Jul 11, 2010 |
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Søren Kierkegaardautor principaltodas as ediçõescalculated
Gorey, EdwardCover letteringautor secundárioalgumas ediçõesconfirmado
Lowrie, WalterTradutorautor secundárioalgumas ediçõesconfirmado
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Walter Lowrie's classic, bestselling translation of Søren Kierkegaard's most important and popular books remains unmatched for its readability and literary quality. Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death established Kierkegaard as the father of existentialism and have come to define his contribution to philosophy. Lowrie's translation, first published in 1941 and later revised, was the first in English, and it has introduced hundreds of thousands of readers to Kierkegaard's thought. Kierkegaard counted Fear and Trembling and The Sickness Unto Death among "the most perfect books I have written," and in them he introduces two terms--"the absurd" and "despair"--that have become key terms in modern thought. Fear and Trembling takes up the story of Abraham and Isaac to explore a faith that transcends the ethical, persists in the face of the absurd, and meets its reward in the return of all that the faithful one is willing to sacrifice, while The Sickness Unto Death examines the spiritual anxiety of despair. Walter Lowrie's magnificent translation of these seminal works continues to provide an ideal introduction to Kierkegaard. And, as Gordon Marino argues in a new introduction, these books are as relevant as ever in today's age of anxiety.

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