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Being and Nothingness: An Essay on…
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Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (Routledge Classics) (original 1943; edição 2003)

por Jean-Paul Sartre

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4,962192,242 (3.66)49
"First published in French in 1943 Jean-Paul Sartre's L'tre et le Nant is one of the greatest philosophical works of the twentieth century. In it, Sartre offers nothing less than a brilliant and radical account of the human condition. The English philosopher and novelist Iris Murdoch wrote to a friend of "the excitement - I remember nothing like it since the days of discovering Keats and Shelley and Coleridge". What gives our lives significance, Sartre argues in Being and Nothingness, is not pre-established for us by God or nature but is something for which we ourselves are responsible. Combining this with the unsettling view that human existence is characterized by radical freedom and the inescapability of choice, Sartre introduces us to a cast of ideas and characters that are part of philosophical legend: anguish; the 'bad faith' of the memorable waiter in the caf; sexual desire; and the 'look' of the other, brought to life by Sartre's famous description of someone looking through a keyhole. Above all, by arguing that we alone create our values and that human relationships are characterized by hopeless conflict, Sartre paints a stark and controversial picture of our moral universe and one that resonates strongly today. This new translation includes a helpful Translator's Introduction, notes on the translation, a comprehensive index and a foreword by Richard Moran."--Book jacket.… (mais)
Membro:Marjan.Max.Maric
Título:Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology (Routledge Classics)
Autores:Jean-Paul Sartre
Informação:Routledge (2003), Edition: 2, 688 pages
Coleções:A sua biblioteca
Avaliação:*****
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Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology por Jean-Paul Sartre (1943)

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Article du Monde sur André Gorz :

www.lemonde.fr
André Gorz, philosophe
Michel Contat
7 - 9 minutes

Disparitions

Philosophe de l'engagement marqué par Sartre, journaliste soucieux d'analyser la précarisation du travail, pionnier de l'écologie politique, il était aussi l'amoureux de Dorine, sa femme, avec qui il a choisi de mourir.

Le philosophe André Gorz et sa femme Dorine se sont suicidés ensemble dans leur maison de Vosnon, dans l'Aube. Lui avait 84ans, elle 83 ans, et souffrait d'une maladie évolutive extrêmement douloureuse.

Il avait pris une retraite anticipée du Nouvel Observateur, dont il était l'un des cofondateurs, et quitté Paris afin de mieux l'aider dans tous les actes de leur vie.

Le succès l'avait surpris pour son dernier livre, Lettre à D. (Galilée), où il disait à Dorine comment il en était venu à reconnaître son amour pour elle et à admettre que ce dernier était ce qui lui avait permis de construire une oeuvre. Cette oeuvre, assignée à la visibilité d'un seul nom, le sien, qui était un pseudonyme, il affirmait qu'elle résultait en réalité du dialogue permanent entretenu avec Dorine depuis qu'il l'avait connue, en 1947, à Lausanne.

Demi-juif autrichien, il s'y était réfugié après l'Anschluss et avait accompli des études de chimie. Elle était de nationalité britannique, ils se sentaient tous deux en Suisse des personnes déplacées, sans attaches autres que celles qu'ils créeraient ensemble dans un esprit de liberté et de fidélité à eux-mêmes.

AUTOANALYSE EXISTENTIELLE

De son vrai nom Gérard Horst, il était né à Vienne en 1923, d'un père marchand, juif, et d'une mère catholique. A Lausanne, il entreprit de se reprendre entièrement à son compte en lisant Paul Valéry et Jean-Paul Sartre essentiellement. Il avait si bien assimilé L'Etre et le Néant que lorsque Sartre vint en tournée de conférences avec Simone de Beauvoir, en 1946, il entama avec lui une discussion qui ne devait jamais cesser.

Il tirait de l'ouvrage sartrien des conclusions plus radicales que Sartre lui-même, concluant à la vanité de toute action. Sartre lui démontra que s'il pensait ainsi, c'était dû à sa situation. Gorz tenait pour une chance d'avoir rencontré avec Sartre une pensée ouverte, car, tenté par les systèmes, il se serait enfermé dans Hegel s'il avait commencé par lui.

Il se mit donc à écrire, dans la continuité de L'Etre et le Néant, un essai philosophique où il s'agissait de fonder une morale existentielle et des raisons d'agir. Encouragé par Sartre, il s'installa à Paris comme journaliste, vivant avec Dorine dans le dénuement et travaillant la nuit à son ouvrage. Elle l'aidait professionnellement en constituant une documentation qui, à Paris-Presse d'abord puis à L'Express de Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber et Françoise Giroud, permit à Gorz de prendre, sous le pseudonyme de Michel Bosquet, une place grandissante de journaliste économique.

Le contact avec les réalités sociales, la rencontre aussi avec Pierre Mendès France, lui firent aborder la politique par la voie de l'économie jointe à la philosophie. Sartre méconnut l'originalité de son essai philosophique, Gorz en fut ébranlé, il le rangea (Fondements pour une morale ne fut publié qu'en 1977) et il entreprit de se reprendre à zéro dans une audacieuse tentative d'autoanalyse existentielle. Ce fut Le Traître, en 1958, que Sartre préfaça par un texte éclatant. Le livre changea effectivement la vie d' André Gorz et de Dorine en les socialisant.

UNE AUTRE MONDIALISATION

Pourquoi les hommes acceptent-ils de vivre contre leurs désirs pour satisfaire aux besoins artificiellement suscités par l'économie marchande, au lieu de mettre les échanges au service de leur propre production en tant qu'êtres humains ? Cette question court sous toute la pensée philosophique sociale du XXe siècle et André Gorz la repensa en se fondant sur Marx, celui des Grundrisse, Sartre, celui de la Critique de la raison dialectique, Ivan Illich, celui de La Convivialité, mais aussi sur les travaux de Jean-Marie Vincent et d'intellectuels politiques comme l'Italien Bruno Trentin.

A partir de Stratégie ouvrière et néocapitalisme (1964), il devint une référence pour les syndicalistes indépendants, en Allemagne et dans les pays scandinaves plus qu'en France. Avec Adieux au prolétariat (1980), André Gorz prenait acte de l'invention d'une nouvelle socialité par des gens que la destruction progressive du salariat déclassait et précarisait.

Poursuivant conjointement la critique de la division du travail propre au capitalisme et la destruction de la planète par l'exploitation irrationnelle de ses ressources, il fondait l'écologie politique (Ecologie et politique, 1975 et 1978 ; Ecologie et liberté, 1977 ; Métamorphoses du travail, quête du sens, 1988).

Son dernier ouvrage théorique, L'Immatériel, traitait de l'indifférence de la science et du capital à toute fin humaine, et de la crise que la fissure de cette alliance provoquait.

Il s'intéressait à la nouvelle utopie dessinée par la pratique des "dissidents du capitalisme numérique", les hackers, déclassés volontaires qui mettent gratuitement en réseau leurs inventions libératrices. Se rangeant à l'idée d'un "revenu social garanti, inconditionnel et universel", il le voyait déboucher sur une société où la production de soi dans la convivialité avec les autres passerait avant la production de marchandises globalement déshumanisantes. Penseur d'une autre mondialisation, celle des inventeurs de vie, André Gorz reste un philosophe d'avenir.

Michel Contat
  jmv55 | Sep 17, 2023 |
El ser y la Nada es la obra donde Jean-Paul Sartre expone técnica y acabadamente su "existencialismo" y aquella que facilita la plena comprensión de su obra literaria. La primera edición francesa fue publicada en 1943, es decir, en el seno de una Europa arrasada por la guerra. Sartre tenía entonces 38 años y ya había escrito tres obras de carácter filosófico en las cuales explicaba el método de Husserl con vistas a la constitución de una psicología fenomenológica. Había publicado también su primera novela, La náusea, y una serie de cuentos, El muro. A partir de ese momento la producción de Sartre se sucederá sin pausa, abarcando todas las modalidades del pensamiento y de la literatura, pero las tesis centrales de este ensayo de ontología fenomenológica seguirán nutriendo y otorgando significado a tan diversificada producción. Y lo que en sus comienzos fue pura expresión teórica desbordó el ámbito especializado para convertirse, con el nombre de existencialismo, en uno de los fenómenos culturales más importantes de la segunda mitad del siglo pasado.
  MaEugenia | Aug 6, 2020 |
I wish Goodreads had another main category for books for when you abandon them yet still intend one day to come back and finish them. Don't want it cluttering up my Currently Reading list and yet cannot tag as read or remove entirely. Oh well...

If I was going to be completely honest I think from what I read of this I would probably rate it closer to 3.5 stars (for whatever that's worth). Recently learning more about Kojeve and his lectures on Hegel, it's easy to see how Sartre took what he might have learned in those lessons and used it to add his own thoughts to phenomenology.

My main gripe if I have one is that I can't help feeling that Sartre makes all of this much more complicated than it has to be. I realize that some of these concepts are incredibly abstract, yet Sartre seems to revel in his over-complicated language and descriptions when I think the meat of what he was trying to say could probably be broken down and disseminated much more simply. ( )
  23Goatboy23 | Jan 17, 2020 |
Un gran reto intelectual (en mi caso fallido) el intentar comprender y asimilar todos los planteamientos que en esta obra encontraras.
Extremadamente denso desde la primera página.
  txurialtea | Sep 13, 2016 |
It goes without saying that Being and Nothingness is a quintessential book in regards to studying existentialism. Nevertheless one must keep in mind that Sartre is the only philosopher to have claimed to be an “existentialist.” Existentialism is not a system, and it is not going to be found solely in Sartre’s Opus. The range of writers – from those that were dead before the thread was acknowledged to those who denounced the classification of their own work as such but are nevertheless considered to be so – is astronomical. And for those who sympathize with these ideas it should come as little surprise, for personally I feel that all humanism has an existentialist foundation.

It is a wonder though how far we have moved away from those ideas. The radically growing cult of the self that has been snowballing for at least the past decade and which has in my eyes lead us to so much of the world crises that we see today (ironically which were similar social elements that inspired such writers as Sartre, Camus, Heidegger, Ortega, etc. to flourish with these very ideas), portrays a very grim future and a lamentable entrenchment into a solipsism that is so consumed with itself that it can’t even recognize itself as such – a condition which these writers primarily set out to prevent. Even in France today you find novelists such as Michel Houellebecq meeting universal approbation for portraying these very themes in contemporary culture (I guess as a historical moment in European philosophy the case is considered to be settled and left alone; yet another grim estimation of contemporary society).

As for the book in question though, it is a trial to read. Ontology is definitely not Sartre’s strong point, and if the beginning is difficult to get through it’s not just because of its weighty content, but because Sartre himself stumbles through it all quite a bit himself. The primary writers who contribute to Sartre’s thought are Hegel, Husserl, and Heidegger – all of which it helps to have a decent understanding of in order to follow where he is going.

Of greatest interest to me in reading Being and Nothingness was Sartre’s essential continuation of Heidegger’s existential analytic. The majority of Sartre’s set-up, despite his repeated “critiques” of Heidegger’s thought (his stumbling through ontology I feel is a direct result of his not fully comprehending him), is in fact derived straight out of Being and Time. It is even rumored that, for what it’s worth, Sartre continually tried to prevent Being and Time from being translated into French.

Either way I was most disappointed with Heidegger for never having broached a social/pragmatic interpretation of Dasein in regards to others and our complex reciprocal relationships – and this is of course just what Sartre picks up and does. This for me is the great wealth to be found in Being and Nothingness. Sartre was one of the first to not be afraid to use literary references in his philosophical writings outside of aesthetics, and his contribution to the arts alone for opening up phenomenological cross-roads between life as it is lived and as it is experienced in art is something that has given me much consolation and inspiration.

As with any work of this scope and magnitude, it would be silly to sit here and try to write a thesis as a review. As such I will leave it at saying, whatever way you may feel about Sartre’s philosophy (or believe you feel from only minor association with his ideas as is the case with most philosophers), it really is an essential read these days. Not everything is a gem, but that does not mean that there are not significant humanistic critiques which transcend the book itself for their ability to make us re-evaluate our relationship is to each other as individuals. The role we play in constructing and understanding ourselves through those around us is an idea that, for as simple and foundational as it is, somehow has almost entirely disappeared from the culture that I at least find myself in. I find myself surrounded by primarily three types of people; 1) Radical egoists, 2) Traditional religious people with their various interpretations thereof, and 3) New agers who like the religious hand over their identity to whatever higher power of their choice is. All of these remove freedom from themselves or others, as well as pass off the responsibility for their own becoming.

Please! We need people to wake back up. I feel sometimes as if culture stopped assimilating philosophy after Kant : (

No one ever said life was supposed to feel good. I see more people suffer from collapses in their egoistic/idealistic bubbles (and I’m not even using those two terms pejoratively) than I care to. It’s a different kind of smile that I bear…
( )
  PhilSroka | Apr 12, 2016 |
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"First published in French in 1943 Jean-Paul Sartre's L'tre et le Nant is one of the greatest philosophical works of the twentieth century. In it, Sartre offers nothing less than a brilliant and radical account of the human condition. The English philosopher and novelist Iris Murdoch wrote to a friend of "the excitement - I remember nothing like it since the days of discovering Keats and Shelley and Coleridge". What gives our lives significance, Sartre argues in Being and Nothingness, is not pre-established for us by God or nature but is something for which we ourselves are responsible. Combining this with the unsettling view that human existence is characterized by radical freedom and the inescapability of choice, Sartre introduces us to a cast of ideas and characters that are part of philosophical legend: anguish; the 'bad faith' of the memorable waiter in the caf; sexual desire; and the 'look' of the other, brought to life by Sartre's famous description of someone looking through a keyhole. Above all, by arguing that we alone create our values and that human relationships are characterized by hopeless conflict, Sartre paints a stark and controversial picture of our moral universe and one that resonates strongly today. This new translation includes a helpful Translator's Introduction, notes on the translation, a comprehensive index and a foreword by Richard Moran."--Book jacket.

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